Discuss the various sources used in the writing of african history pdf

That is why i trace response to oral poetic performances as of the udje and ijala and the continuation into modern works in english, french, or portuguese, among others. Primary sources refer to documents or other items that provide firsthand, eyewitness accounts of events. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and. It might well be a document, and we often think of history as a textual discipline, based on the interpretation of written texts, but it might also be a building, a piece of art or an ephemeral object a train ticket, say, or perhaps a pair of shoes. Breaking new ground in african historiography, the authors cover the period from prehistoric times to post independent africa. African histories gives students a rich understanding of africas complex history through a wide variety of sources while exposing them to the african voice. We intend to prepare you for the further topics which follow this lesson. Sources and methods in african history boydell and brewer. The primary sources, remnants and written documents are counted as more reliable than the oral history. Major trends in historical thought and writing page5 uniti significance of historiography in the writing and teaching of history historiography is the study of how history itself is written or handed down throughout the ages. For this purpose historians have to employ various sources in order to gather information on african history. Primary sources for historical research subject and.

Pdf even though contemporary research on african languages and cultures is usually. Constructing a history of sexuality, of religious dissent or of personhood from colonial sources might prove all but impossible. History african diaspora subject fredrick douglass ambassor hatti. What is here called crosscultural understanding is itself a kind of compara. The writing of african history involves collection of historical facts and interpreting them logically so as to develop a clear account of events that took place in africa in the past. Writing a history of political strive, of economic or ecological change, of gang culture, even of consumption is probably easier, as many good books show. The history of africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans andat least 200,000 years agoanatomically modern humans homo sapiens, in east africa, and continues unbroken into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. African sources for african history is a book series published by brill that aims to make.

Pdf even though contemporary research on african languages and. Sources and methods in african history book description. Historical sources are, at their most basic level, something that tells us about history. Definition of a source of history a source of history can be divided in to two big groups. History 183 formerly history 12a introduction to african history, prehistory to 1885 3 units. Aht 100 sources of african history kenyatta university. The history of south african law and its romandutch roots. Historiography and methods of african history african studies. Modern african literature is the natural inheritor of traditional african literature and though. Chapter two will discuss how, alongside the growth of britishafrican education. Pdf written sources about africa and their study researchgate. Oral sources interviews and eyewitness accounts can be used as primary sources.

Forty years after the publication of daniel mccalls africa in time perspective. Sources of african history a source of history can be divided into two big groups, remnants and storytelling which usually are called primary and secondary sources. Cambridge core african history sources and methods in african history edited by toyin falola. Prejudice against black africans in particular, which goes far back in history, has meant that african history has been dictated by. Themes in the literary traditions of contemporary africa are worked out frequently within the strictures laid down by the imported religions christianity and islam and within the struggle between traditional and modern, between rural and newly urban, between genders, and between generations. Skip to main content accessibility help we use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The paper intends to reexamine africas historiography and reveal the gaps in. Historical method is the collection of techniques and guidelines that historians use to research and write histories of the past. Writing african history has been challenging and mostly difficult, due to a lack of. African literature the influence of oral traditions on. It is easier to use written sources in the reconstruction of african history.

African literature african literature the influence of oral traditions on modern writers. The rate of incorporation of new sources and methods into african historical research shows no signs of slowing. Origins of african history 1 concept of two africas 2 the relationship between african history and world history 2 sources of african history 4 oral traditions 5 written sources 11 historical linguistics 14 anthropology 17 archaelogy 24 origins and evolution of man 25 the aspects of human evolution influence of the environment on human life. It is the religion which resulted from the sustaining faith held by the forebears of the present africans, and which is being practised today in various forms and. Scattered along the periphery of maasailand are several smaller communities. The term historiography also refers to the theory and history of historical writing. On the other hand, archaeologists have long used the same written and oral sources. What sources of history and state its importance of archaeological source for the reconstruction of the ancient indian history. Objectives two primary sources two secondary sources, outline. It may be a document, a picture, a sound recording, a book, a cinema film, a television program or an object. Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The third section mines old documentary sources for new historical perspectives.

In 1997, the then secretary general of the zimbabwe congress of trade unions, morgan. The specific concept of narrative in african philosophy and its value for crosscultural understanding will surface often and be developed in several ways throughout the book. Using an array of sources, these scholars were successful in showing that africa not only had a history but that its history and the writing of it. It merged however, as the following essay will show, in its long andexciting history elements of all mentioned laws to a specific south african law. The source materials are as essential part of historywriting. Documentary sources are thesine qua nonfor historians, but few africanists discuss them. Using an array of sources, these scholars were successful in showing that africa not only had a history but that its history and the writing of it date back to ancient antiquity. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledges across generations without a writing system. Historians collect information from various trails for reconstructing history.

The diversity within cultures probably exceeds the differences between cultures. Bibliographies in books and journal articles found in the first round of information retrieval will be additional sources that can be used. A primary source is the evidence of an eye witness or mechanical device which was present at the time of the occurrence of an event. Materials used to study history can be classified into three types. History social science content standards curriculum. Spoken, written, unearthed toyin falola and christian jennings editors university of rochester press 2004 sources and methods have been an ongoing concern in african history since the early years of its development as a field of academic specialization. The uneasy proposition surrounded to what extent it was ever possible to write the history of the various peoples of africa or indeed anyone else through the writings, memoirs and reports of colonial officials, explorers and missionaries. The fourth section deals with the method most often associated with african historians, that of drawing historical data from oral tradition. Here, the reader will find contributions that discuss the data com.

The fifth section is devoted to essays that present innovative sources and methods for african historical research. The written sources for african history are scattered throughout the world, often in. Sources of african history essay sample sample essays. It will replace daniel mccalls classic africa in time perspective as the introduction to african history for the next generation and as a reference for professional historians, interested readers, and anyone who wants to understand how african history is written. Also shows how this writing rejects the prevailing notion of primordial savagery for the continent, creates and reaffirms african selfrespect, and restores and establishes the continents claim to historical antiquity and civilizations. Oral sources and the challenge of african history chapter. So just knowing one persons cultural identity doesnt provide complete or reliable information about that person. For use as a primary text in history of africa courses and as a supplemental text for courses in world history and african studies. It takes into consideration the various means by which a historical. Becoming zimbabwe is the first comprehensive history of zimbabwe, spanning the years from 850 to 2008. But that works differently for different types of history. Sources and methods in african history ut liberal arts.

These trails or clues taken together are known as the source materials of history. You know that you are different from others in your culture. In discussing african culture and values, we are not. African literature possessing those qualities that define it as such. From the precolonial to the modern day toyin falola and tyler fleming encyclopedia of life support systems eolss people have lived in africa for more than three million years. Shows how postindependence history writing was predicated on a desire to achieve intellectual decolonization. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your african history essay. African historiography and the challenges of european. Wood writing boards brooklyn museum of art are used for this purpose. An introduction to african history ogutu, matthias a.

The sources found in the library through the library websitewill lead to more relevant information. The main objective of this paper is to examine african culture and values. Primary sources and other evidence including those from archaeology are used in the philosophy of history, the question of the nature, and the possibility, of a sound historical method is raised within the subfield of epistemology. This is a short history of africa excluding egypt, ethiopia and dutch and british south africa, which are the subjects of separate histories. It is the work of the historian to convert the scattered difficult primary evidences into coherent, intelligible secondary sources. The first unit of study for business law 101 is an introduction to the subject. A ogot in the reconstruction of african history is showed on his analyses of the birth of national language. The use of all the three sources in conjunction is crucial if one is to get reliable history. This is done through discovery and study of historical sources. Sources and methods in african history edited by toyin falola. World civilizations and history of human development african civilizations. What are the sources of history and state its importance.

It is rather easy to find sources for writing the history of the recent past, because there is plenty of hand written and printed. Describe the importance of written and oral traditions in the transmission of african history and culture. An overview of the ongoing methods used to understand african history. African history has been a challenge for researchers because of scarce written sources in many regions, especially sub saharan africa. Spurred in part by the ongoing reevaluation of sources and methods in research, african historiography in the past two decades has been characterized by the continued branching and increasing sophistication of methodologies and areas of specialization. The earliest known recorded history arose in ancient egypt, and later in nubia, the sahel, the maghreb and the horn of. Writing african history is an essential work for anyone who wants to write, or even seriously read, african history. Academic writing sources are the materials used by the writer to gather information about their subject. The trails are both written documents and archaeological evidences. Thus, the various stages of societys development that has to be evaluated to. Write a short note on the literary source for the reconstruction of ancient. Any leftover of the past can be considered a source. A discussion of historical reconstruction from unwritten sources, john edward philips and a team of experts in different fields have produced writing african history.

When we speak of african traditional religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the africans. Rochester studies in african history and the diaspora. African historiography was challenged by the availability of written sources. Introduction to african history, prehistory to 1885 3. In addition, historians often examine primary sources that are not written. Key terms whyreasons different sourcesarchaeology, oral tradition and written records zimbabwes precolonial historyperiod before 1890 zimbabwes precolonial history is hidden in the three sources, archaeology, oral tradition and written records. The purpose of history is to throw light on the past. Historiography and methods of african history african. Historiography, the writing of history, especially the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particular details from the authentic materials in those sources, and the synthesis of those details into a narrative that stands the test of critical examination. For example, if you are studying the civil rights movement, a newspaper article published the day after the 1965 selma to montgomery march and a memoir written by someone who participated in the march would both be considered primary sources. She points out that the terms used are generally more precise. Some of the history of these countries, however, is naturally mentioned in this history of the rest of africa but is kept to the minimum needed to make the rest comprehensible. Muslim scholars were also prominent recorders of history along the swahili coast of.

1131 1479 432 1177 892 792 1162 1410 1084 496 438 1458 369 1490 596 598 239 1434 1297 708 1164 543 1061 1453 514 665 1294 1352 528 727 1080 40 418 394 1316 1293 1203 104 786 230 1240 537 405 1494